One of the substances and materials known from ancient times, is the glass. According to variety of properties it is universal truth. Artificial substance is produced by melting glass-forming components and different chemical elements to give the desired staining (quartz sand, limestone, oxides of silicon, boron, aluminum, phosphorus, zirconium, magnesium, copper, etc.). The colour palette ranges from transparent and colorless to all sorts of bright colors, including bright ruby glass.
Obtained by boiling under high temperatures (from + 300-2500°C) material produced in Ancient Egypt several thousand years BC. Colored glass came much sooner than white and transparent. Glassblowers those times could not obtain a pure product, which was distributed mainly dirty shades of green, brown, grey.
After a time, began to specifically introduce additives of some metals, and a dirty shade was covered with bright colors. The glass was similar to the gems, he created rings, bottles, beads, bowls, vases.
With the development of glassmaking masters learned to a variety of colors, the glass itself became clearer, and art production and painting remained a secret. Like jewels, bright ruby glass was made in the XVII century, it was introduced in the gold.
Antonio Neri in his treatise from 1612 explained the relationship of rubies and gold metal, and the first recipe of cooking derived alchemist of German origin Johann Kegel in the late XVII century. A small change in the production process in Central Europe in the eighteenth century, making the shade a characteristic blood-red or brownish.
In Russia, Mikhail Lomonosov developed a recipe built laboratory, where he created ruby glass, and established its production. The colour of the glass is painted in pink, crimson, red, purple colors were due to different amounts of gold nanoparticles and the conditions of heat treatment.
Ruby the production of gold
The complexity of manufacturing is the multicomponent nature of the composition, from which is made of ruby glass, the chemical elements gold and copper in this structure are responsible for the coloration of the finished material. Red glass is most difficult to manufacture, as it contains about a dozen items. Depending on the components of raw materials and additives used glass acquires its properties.
Ruby glass was produced in several stages:
This procedure is referred to as the hover color, and the resulting ruby glass acquires the ability to pass only red rays.
Substitutes gold in the composition of rubies
The cheaper grades of ruby glass produced using in production instead of gold, silver, copper, selenium. In such cases, glass is made in the following way:
After that, the glass acquires beautiful red shades identical to precious stones. Production of rubies with copper used to be considered more accurate and capricious because it was not always possible to achieve a dyeing or a desired degree of brightness.
Methods of making
The main methods for the manufacture of glass are:
The use of ruby glass
Wide dissemination and application in various fields of glass was due to its ability to transform from liquid to solid state as it cools down in the production process. In the molten state, it takes any shape that is retained after hardening.
Glass is widely used in various industries. For the production of household utensils used ruby glass. Glasses, cups, bowls, sweets bowls, candlesticks, decanters, Cutlery sets and much more made from this fragile material. Use it for decorative, applied art, jewelry. As it turned out, it is made not only in the famous Kremlin stars and vases, ruby glass is also used in engineering, construction, industry.
Today, chemists learned how to get rubies, adding to the composition of the glass instead of gold and copper selenium, combining it with other chemicals. Depending on their concentration, you can get ruby glass various shades.
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