Ruby glass is a brittle material from Ancient Egypt

One of the substances and materials known from ancient times, is the glass. According to variety of properties it is universal truth. Artificial substance is produced by melting glass-forming components and different chemical elements to give the desired staining (quartz sand, limestone, oxides of silicon, boron, aluminum, phosphorus, zirconium, magnesium, copper, etc.). The colour palette ranges from transparent and colorless to all sorts of bright colors, including bright ruby glass.

Glass history

Obtained by boiling under high temperatures (from + 300-2500°C) material produced in Ancient Egypt several thousand years BC. Colored glass came much sooner than white and transparent. Glassblowers those times could not obtain a pure product, which was distributed mainly dirty shades of green, brown, grey.

After a time, began to specifically introduce additives of some metals, and a dirty shade was covered with bright colors. The glass was similar to the gems, he created rings, bottles, beads, bowls, vases.

With the development of glassmaking masters learned to a variety of colors, the glass itself became clearer, and art production and painting remained a secret. Like jewels, bright ruby glass was made in the XVII century, it was introduced in the gold.

Antonio Neri in his treatise from 1612 explained the relationship of rubies and gold metal, and the first recipe of cooking derived alchemist of German origin Johann Kegel in the late XVII century. A small change in the production process in Central Europe in the eighteenth century, making the shade a characteristic blood-red or brownish.

In Russia, Mikhail Lomonosov developed a recipe built laboratory, where he created ruby glass, and established its production. The colour of the glass is painted in pink, crimson, red, purple colors were due to different amounts of gold nanoparticles and the conditions of heat treatment.

Ruby the production of gold

The complexity of manufacturing is the multicomponent nature of the composition, from which is made of ruby glass, the chemical elements gold and copper in this structure are responsible for the coloration of the finished material. Red glass is most difficult to manufacture, as it contains about a dozen items. Depending on the components of raw materials and additives used glass acquires its properties.

Ruby glass was produced in several stages:

  • By fusing glass with a small mass of chloride of gold.
  • Cooling-off period, during which the mass becomes transparent or slightly yellowish color.
  • Re-heating to a temperature heat.
  • Slow cooling with the purchase of a glass of red.
  • This procedure is referred to as the hover color, and the resulting ruby glass acquires the ability to pass only red rays.

    Substitutes gold in the composition of rubies

    The cheaper grades of ruby glass produced using in production instead of gold, silver, copper, selenium. In such cases, glass is made in the following way:

  • Melting and boiling mass with the addition of a small amount of tin and copper.
  • The obtained colorless the mass cooled.
  • Re-heating to a certain temperature.
  • The period of painting and cooling.
  • After that, the glass acquires beautiful red shades identical to precious stones. Production of rubies with copper used to be considered more accurate and capricious because it was not always possible to achieve a dyeing or a desired degree of brightness.

    Methods of making

    The main methods for the manufacture of glass are:

  • Blowing is one of the most ancient, laborious and complicated techniques of production. It is the development and practical application of complex technology, where the main requirement is a high precision and accuracy. In the modern world uses this technique in two ways. Manual when products are blown using a glass tube. For this, the end of the dial glass mass and is then inflated, slowly rotating the tube and giving the desired shape. Mechanized, when the product is blown on glass-forming machines using compressed air. Most of these machines work on an automatic basis. So blown hollow articles of various configurations: narrow-neck products for the medical, perfume industry, food and chemical packaging, and household utensils. Rare exclusive items, unique shapes and variations are made only by masters of manual injection.
  • Pressing is the simplest method of production of glass products in which a portion of the glass mass is placed in a mold in a press and squeezed, the product is exactly the specified form. After complete cooling the product is removed from the mold. This is usually a thick-walled product with the presence of surface irregularities and seams. As well as blowing, pressing is manual and mechanical. Used in manual machine with lever or spring pressure. Mechanized press is on automatic glass-forming machines glass factories.
  • Casting. This method consists in pouring the glass mass into a special shape. After cooling, the glass acquires the necessary configuration, thickness and size.
  • The use of ruby glass

    Wide dissemination and application in various fields of glass was due to its ability to transform from liquid to solid state as it cools down in the production process. In the molten state, it takes any shape that is retained after hardening.

    Glass is widely used in various industries. For the production of household utensils used ruby glass. Glasses, cups, bowls, sweets bowls, candlesticks, decanters, Cutlery sets and much more made from this fragile material. Use it for decorative, applied art, jewelry. As it turned out, it is made not only in the famous Kremlin stars and vases, ruby glass is also used in engineering, construction, industry.

    Today, chemists learned how to get rubies, adding to the composition of the glass instead of gold and copper selenium, combining it with other chemicals. Depending on their concentration, you can get ruby glass various shades.

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